1 a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
2 any connection or unifying bond
In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:
The first meaning is most commonly what is meant by the term "ligament". After briefly discussing the other two types of ligaments, the remainder of this article will focus upon the first type.
Peritoneal ligamentsCertain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments.
Fetal remnant ligamentsCertain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures:
Articular ligamentsIn its most common use, a ligament is a short band of tough fibrous dense regular connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibers. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form a joint. (They do not connect muscles to bones; that is the function of tendons.) Some ligaments limit the mobility of articulations, or prevent certain movements altogether.
Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. They act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join bones together and provide joint stability.
Ligaments are only elastic; when under tension, they gradually lengthen. (Unlike tendons which are inelastic). This is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as quickly as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much, then the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts, dancers, and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple. The term double-jointed refers to people who have more elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further. The medical term for describing such double-jointed persons is hyperlaxity and double-jointed is a synonym of hyperlax.
The study of ligaments is known as desmology.
The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be joined. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli Procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and eventually to osteoarthritis.
- See Wrist#Ligaments
ligament in Czech: Vaz
ligament in German: Band (Anatomie)
ligament in Spanish: Ligamento
ligament in Esperanto: Ligamento
ligament in French: Ligament
ligament in Italian: Legamento
ligament in Hebrew: רצועה
ligament in Dutch: Ligament (anatomie)
ligament in Japanese: 靱帯
ligament in Polish: Więzadło
ligament in Portuguese: Ligamento
ligament in Simple English: Ligament
ligament in Slovak: Väz (tkanivo)
ligament in Finnish: Nivelside
ligament in Swedish: Ligament
ligament in Thai: เอ็น
ligament in Chinese: 韧带